What media formats have digital locks or Technological Protection Mechanisms [TPMs] to protect copyright and how do they work?
- Audio CDS - currently many Audio CDS do not have encryption/digital locks, but they will have digital watermarks embedded in them. see also 'Online Music Access'
- E-books - have a digital lock feature to limit copying, printing, and sharing of e-books. Typically, e-books are limited to a certain number of reading devices; e-publishers use TPMs to prevent any copying or printing.
- Games - digital rights controlled by limited install activations; continuous online authenication; 'bugs' deliberately installed in software which are activated if users are breaching rights.
- Movies - movies come as encrypted content on DVD discs. Manufacturers of DVD players have installed a licenced interface in their devices so that the player can decrypt the encrypted content to play it. The same would apply to playing DVDs on digital interfaces. The encryption now also interacts with downloads of videos to a mobile device.
- Online Music Access - online music stores may use Digital locks or TPMs to restrict use of music purchased and downloaded online.
What are digital watermarks and metadata and how do they affect the use of the media listed above?
The two features described below may be attached or embedded in digital files to track the ownership and/or the use of the product.
- Digital Watermarks - are digitally embedded within audio and video and can be used to record details about the copyright owner or distributor, and also details which identify the purchaser. In a watermark, the data is merged with the original object (audio, video, digital image, etc) and cannot be removed.
- Attached Metadata - is a separate file included with the original audio/video/image or text data which records information such as the purchaser's name, account information, or email address. It may also include information about the original producer of the material.